This RNA-based ImmunoPrism™ Immune Profiling Kit was developed for laboratories wishing to derive the immune composition of tumor samples. The tumor’s immune composition is proving to be a valuable indicator of response to current immunotherapies and the numerous drugs in development. The kit reports on the most impactful immune modulatory molecules demonstrated to have implications in drug discovery, biomarker development, and immunotherapy efficacy prediction. Specifically, it details the quantitative percentage for eight major immune cell types and expression levels of ten immune escape genes. This immune characterization can be obtained using FFPE, FNAs, and CNBs, accommodating solid tumors with very limited amounts of tissue, in some cases as low as 20 nanograms. This includes pre-treatment clinical samples, which previously have been difficult to characterize.