Acute behavioral changes and long-term antidepressant response can be reliably elicited by surgically targeting and stimulating the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) gyrus area 25, a brain area implicated in depression. While the clinical effectiveness of DBS over the course of six months of treatment has been repeatedly demonstrated, there are differences in the timeline of recovery across different patients. A new study identifies an electrophysiological biomarker that can help optimize this experimental procedure in treating treatment-resistant depression and gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of deep brain stimulation.
Exposure to inflammation promoting cytokines in the womb generated due to maternal stress during pregnancy differentially affects stress and immune regulatory brain circuitry in male and female offspring and retained into midlife. The study demonstrates a need for sex-dependent targets and therapeutics for early therapeutic intervention and prevention in neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and major depression.
Investigators in a multinational study scanned genomes of nearly 200,000 people to find interactions with genes and sex for schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder. These new findings will help identify potential targets for sex-dependent or sex-specific therapeutic interventions creating more effective therapies for both sexes.