ANP is a cardiac hormone involved in the physiological maintenance of blood volume and arterial blood pressure.3 In lab experiments, introduction of the ANP gene to increase the endogenous plasma levels has been used to treat experimental forms of hypertension. Other peptides in the natriuretic peptide family, BNP and CNP, have hypotensive actions similar to ANP although CNP lacks significant natriuretic activity.
ANP release increases in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. ANP, atrial natriuretic factor, atrial natriuretic hormone, cardionatrin, cardiodilatin, or atriopeptin are polypeptide hormones secreted by heart muscle cells. These hormones are powerful vasodilators and are known to play important role in balancing the levels of body water, sodium, potassium, and adipose tissue. These hormones are released by heart muscle cells in the upper chamber of the heart in response to high blood pressure. The loads of water, sodium, and adipose levels into the circulatory system are reduced by ANP, which functions exactly the opposite of aldosterone, secreted by the zona glomerulosa.
Inside of the heart, cardiac myocytes are responsible for production, storage, and release of ANP. Kim et al., demonstrated that GLP-1R activation promotes the secretion of ANP and a reduction of blood pressure.4
Patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated concentration of ANP. Reports have also shown a positive correlation between plasma ANP and PAP (pulmonary artery pressure) in patients with different types of congenital heart disease.5
A clinical study in Finland concluded that low levels of mid-regional ANP and N-terminal pro-BNP predicted development of type 2 diabetes. Decreased levels of natriuretic peptides are signs of insulin resistance such as in obesity. Low natriuretic peptide levels lead to faster blood glucose progression over time and predict the development of diabetes in healthy subjects.6 Though it is well known that there is a reduced level of natriuretic peptides in individuals with obesity and diabetes, recently published data7 also shows low levels of natriuretic peptides in people with polycystic ovary syndrome.