The focus of this GEN Market & Tech Analysis report is to present a snapshot of regional epigenetic down- and up-regulation in cancer with a focus toward prostate cancer.
We present here long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES) as a means for downregulation of stretches of the genome as well as long-range epigenetic activation (LREA). These two opposing effects appear to be mediated by an interplay between DNA methylation and chromatin modification. We've focused this analysis on an interrogation of prostate cancer.
Also presented herein are potential associations of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with distinct cancer classes. The potential utility of lncRNAs in finely modulating the expression of distinct regions of the genome makes this class of molecules attractive potential biomarkers and perhaps even therapeutic targets in the future.
Topics discussed in this report:
- Epigenetic modulations result in both downregulation of gene expression as well as upregulation of gene expression.
- It appears that “region-specific” epigenetic modulations have biological effects and these have been mapped in the case of several cancers including prostate cancer presented here.
- Epigenetically modified regions might actually be important hotspots as biomarkers for diagnostics development; alternatively genetic elements might be therapeutically modulated.
- lncRNAs have been shown to have epigenetic effects, and we present here a list of the various lncRNAs with annotation and association with various types of cancer—this field is expanding and in fact already one lncRNA has reached diagnostics status. More are expected to follow over the course of this decade.
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