Federal efforts to maintain U.S. leadership in nanotech, particularly in the medical field, will prove effective to a great extent, a nearly 2-to-1 majority believe. In a recent GEN poll, 54.5% said that initiatives will help a lot, 27.3% said it will help somewhat, and 18.2% voted not much at all. Recent efforts have been designed to keep the U.S. out in front in nanotech despite growing challenges from Europe and Asia, notably China, Singapore, and Taiwan. Recent initiatives include flat funding for FY 2012 of FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) at the same $60 million as FY 2011. In addition, Sen. Mark Pryor (D-AR) also inserted language in the House-Senate conference report endorsing the development of a nanotechnology core facility. One such site became operational last fiscal year, the other is set for FY 2012.