Biomarker research and development has evolved over the past years from looking for a single marker (e.g., PSA) linked to a disease state to looking for a panel of markers that can capture the heterogeneity inherent in both the disease and the impacted patient population.
That is one of the key messages to be delivered at GTC’s “Biomarkers Summit” next month. Across the board, resources are being focused on the delivery of more precise, quantifiable biomarkers with predictive value in therapeutic decisions and for the prognosis of illness.
“Our focus on biomarker development is the recognition that the new products need to provide cost savings for the already strapped healthcare systems rather than just be cost effective,” shares Paul Billings, M.D., Ph.D., CMO at Life Technologies.
“We have built a new medical sciences group to address the needs of the multiple delivery systems in the world—from the sophisticated medical clinics in the developed world to the nurse-run shanty clinic in the third world. Providing tools for equitable access to quality diagnosis, on assay platforms that can provide care for all patients, is our goal.”
Life Tech’s medical sciences division has been built by acquisition of Pinpoint Genomics, Navigenics, and Compendia, and collaborations with partners such as Ingenuity Systems and CollabRx. The division is focused on taking the tools that have been used in the life science laboratories and providing molecular diagnostic data to the clinic. The intent is to deliver data in a valuable format that can be used by the molecular pathologist or the treating physician.
The division is developing the Pervenio™ Lung RS assay, a 14-gene expression profile that serves as a risk stratifier that uses a weighted algorithm for the expressed biomarkers within the tumor biopsy, a first-of-its-kind prognostic test for lung cancer, the firm reports.
Initially, tests will be offered as a service through Life Tech’s CLIA laboratory. Then, from the performance lessons learned, Life Tech’s will develop a simpler assay platform, with FDA approval, that can be dispersed globally without reduction of the essential content in the biomarker panel. The focus is on the workflow—screening for known mutations using established easy-to-use assay platforms, like RT-PCR. Should the screen not produce useful results, clinicians can search for new mutations via discovery platforms like next-gen sequencing (NGS).
At Sequenom, the company provides both the tools (DNA mass spectrometry and reagents) for confirmatory biomarker development as well as serving on the front lines as a diagnostic service provider (CLIA lab). The beauty of DNA mass spec is that it can process multiplexed PCR samples (10–60 loci) in a method that is quantitative when used for profiling tumor biopsies that are either archival or fresh tissue.
Given a tumor sample with multiple somatic mutations, the instrument enables the determination of the homogeneity of the cells, in which case the mutations will have the same allele frequency. Accuracy, as measured by coefficient of variance, is less than 2%. Despite this level of sensitivity, the mass spec can only be used as a confirmatory tool looking for known mutations. Discovery is best done using DNA sequencing. DNA mass spec can also be used to study methylation in tumor samples.
“In the not-too-distant future, we will be looking for mutations in plasma samples rather than biopsies,” predicts Charles Cantor, Ph.D., CSO at Sequenom.
“The key is to look noninvasively for mutations within plasma samples such that we can potentially catch the disease state earlier, rather than after tumor formation. Regardless of the tumor type, this approach will enable us to monitor therapeutic response and metastatic potential noninvasively. DNA mass spec is an ultrasensitive detection product that can detect somatic mutations at levels of 1 per 1,000. This level of sensitivity is critical for the future of plasma screening. NGS technology is not that sensitive.”
Sequenom’s CLIA lab is using automated DNA mass spec to provide three different test protocols: (1) carrier screening for cystic fibrosis looking at more than 100 different mutations, (2) adult macular degeneration progression using an SNP test with 13 loci, and (3) a noninvasive test for Rh compatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus.
Sequenom has also set up an NGS facility within a CLIA lab in San Diego using Illumina’s HiSEQ platform. The NGS platform has been set up for noninvasive aneuploidy detection of maternal plasma (10 cc sample) looking at chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. The lab says it has analyzed more than 40,000 samples this year and is planning to increase that volume up to 100,000 samples per year. Most of these samples come from the U.S., but given the development of a new blood collection tube that allows for 72-hour ambient shipping, the lab is looking to increase the number of samples from outside the U.S.
During drug development, biomarkers function as pharmacodynamic markers to help assess the mechanism of action of a drug candidate, to define the downstream biological pathway, and to determine whether the drug is engaging the target with the anticipated biological effect. Later, biomarkers help determine whether a drug is effective using the tested regime (route of delivery, dosage level, and length of exposure time).
Following early development, the second stage is to use biomarkers to help segment patients for clinical trials. Part of the consideration here is how heterogeneous the disease is; are there homogeneous subsets of patients that will respond differentially to the drug based on different mechanisms of the disease?