A major breakthrough in the treatment of prostate cancer was FDA approval of Dendreon’s Provenge after more than 10 years of R&D and $1 billion in funding. The product is on the market with forecasts in the $375 million range for 2011, with potential peak revenues at $4 billion.
Provenge is an active cellular immunotherapy utilizing the patient’s own cells to elicit an immune response to destroy cancer cells. Additional products are in the Phase I pipeline to treat breast, ovarian, and colon cancers targeting the Her2/neu receptor.
The company recently completed $500 million in funding through a convertible debt offering and is expanding its manufacturing in the U.S and Europe. The cost for Provenge treatment in the U.S. is $93,000/year but reimbursement in Europe may be lower. EU approval is expected in early 2012.
One big cost advantage of Provenge over other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy is that it requires less supportive care to treat side effects. As the drug gains acceptance the focus will shift to cost effectiveness and life extension now pegged as much as 10 months longer than patients not treated.
A September 2010 Kalorama Information report estimates the cancer vaccine market for 2011 at $2.2 billion, it is forecasted to grow to $7.7 billion in 2015 driven by the approval of Provenge.
The major indications for cancer vaccines will be prostate and cervical cancer, with Dendreon expected to dominate the prostate market with 93% share or $5.9 billion in 2015. Cervical cancer vaccines to prevent HPV infection currently on the market—Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) and Gardasil (Merck)—are preventive not therapeutic, and are forecasted at $1.8 billion in 2015. This forecast may be low as a higher incidence of HPV is now being reported in males.
OncoThyreon’s Stimuvax therapeutic vaccine utilizes a cancer-associated marker called MUC-1 in a liposomal formulation (BLP25) to create an immune response. Two Phase III trials are under way initially for non-small-cell lung cancer. The product is being funded and developed by Merck KGaA under a license from OncoThyreon.
Geron is in a Phase II trial with an autologous dendritic cell vaccine targeting telomerase in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Vaccinogen has four fast-tracked products in clinical trials using its OncoVAX platform for indications in colon cancer, melanoma, and renal carcinoma. A Phase IIIa trial in the Netherlands demonstrated efficacy with stage 2 colon cancer patients. OncoVAX utilizes the patients own tumor cells patient to create an immune T-cell response capable of destroying cancer cells.
Oxford BioMedica has technologies in gene delivery and immunotherapy. The 5T4 tumor antigen, a unique protein found in many cancers, is utilized in the company’s TroVax therapeutic vaccine currently in a Phase II trial for prostate cancer. An antibody program is also under development.