Genomics is rapidly expanding beyond merely identifying the genetic makeup of organisms to encompass studies of how variations in genotype impact physiological function. Applications involving analysis of the genome include mutation discovery, SNP genotyping, DNA mapping, genetic screening, and population studies. It is hoped that better insight into how changes in genotype translate into effect upon phenotypic expression will lead to earlier disease diagnosis and targeted therapies.
One of the primary tools engaged in the pursuit of genomic discovery is PCR. Specifically, post-PCR analysis techniques are used for genotyping and mutation detection. Traditional methods—including denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)—may require the purchase of costly laboratory equipment.
Probe-based genotyping, a new, more sensitive technique, can be performed on any standard real-time PCR instrument, but requires specially labeled probes, which are also expensive. This approach can require considerable time and effort for optimization.
Until recently, what has been lacking is a low-cost-per-sample method that also enables high-throughput sample processing. High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative to probe-based genotyping assays that overcomes the cost, time, and labor-intensity challenges. HRM does not require special instrumentation as it can be performed on existing real-time PCR systems. This simple, yet highly sensitive and accurate tool is quickly becoming a mainstream part of the genetic analysis workflow.
DNA melt-curve analysis—applying temperature to melt and characterize the resulting curve profiles of double-stranded DNA samples—has proven useful for scanning for sequence variations, primarily to confirm the specificity of primers by ensuring no primer-dimers are present in quantitative PCR assays. The goal of this well-established method has been to prevent nonspecific amplification and improve data accuracy.
Recent advances in dye chemistry, instrument sensitivity, and data-acquisition rates have led to the next generation of this technique—HRM analysis. A closed-tube, post-PCR analysis method that requires no post-PCR handling, HRM analysis generates DNA melt-curve profiles sufficiently specific and sensitive for mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping.
HRM analysis is performed to discriminate nucleotide sequence differences between samples. HRM analysis also enables mixed DNA fragments to be distinguished from each other—important for SNP genotyping of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous mutant individuals.
Three basic tools are used in HRM analysis:
- Specialized PCR reagents and dsDNA binding dye—third-generation saturating, low-toxicity dyes can be used in high concentrations to yield strong melt curves and do not interfere with amplification during PCR.
- Real-time PCR instrumentation should offer sensitive detection for accurate quantitation, target discrimination and precise thermal control.
- HRM analysis-compatible software generates and analyzes melt-curve profiles and clusters samples with similar properties.
Because of its simplicity and abbreviated workflow, HRM analysis offers a cost-effective, yet accurate alternative to probe-based genotyping assays such as SSCP, RFLP, and DNA sequencing.
After DNA is amplified in a real-time PCR instrument using a saturating dye-based master mix, the PCR product is melted using high data-acquisition rates to generate melt curves. Software developed specifically for HRM analysis, such as Precision Melt Analysis™ software from Bio-Rad Laboratories enables analysis of the melt curves for genotyping and mutation scanning.
Melt curves are analyzed in the software using three basic steps:
- All samples are normalized along the fluorescence axis such that their average relative fluorescence value at the premelt signal is set to 100% and postmelt signal is set to 0%. This serves as a visual aid to interpret the data.
- To magnify the differences in the melting curves between samples, each melt curve is subtracted from a user-defined reference melt curve and the fluorescence differences between samples are plotted. Similarly curved shapes will be clustered automatically into groups representing different genotypes/sequences.
- Temperature shifting (optional) makes it easier to distinguish heterozygous from wild-type homozygous samples. Curves can be shifted along the high-end of the temperature axis to meet at the same specific temperature so that curve shapes are more accurately compared.
This simple post-PCR workflow has far fewer steps than traditional screening applications, reducing the resources required to compare DNA samples by sequence, length, content, or complementarity.