Tissue banks that provide tissues for transplantation can play an important role in biobanking through provision of tissue for research from well-defined donors. In this way, with appropriate consent, both normal tissue and tissue with specific pathologies could be made available for biobanking and research.
John Armitage, director of tissue banking at the University of Bristol, sees much greater awareness among researchers studying human disease and treatments to use human tissue as an invaluable adjunct to inform and guide animal studies.
Bristol Tissue Bank offers tissues for research from two main sources: donors where there is a medical contraindication to transplantation, and tissues that are currently not transplantable, e.g., retina. The Bristol Tissue Bank, which processes tissue from about 1,500 eye donors and 100 heart valve donors annually, strives to maximize the use of unsuitable tissue in line with the consent and wishes of donor families.
“I would hope that, as biobanks become more established, the boundaries between certain types of biobanks and transplant tissue banks will disappear. Close cooperation and collaboration is the key to advancing the exciting opportunities offered by biobanks. I am sure that transplant tissue banks are in a position to support and promote biobanking. It would make sense for Bristol Tissue Bank to move forward into biobanking and this is currently being considered,” Armitage explains.
Over the last 25 years, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has collected biomaterial samples and associated phenotypic, lifestyle, genetic, clinical, and environmental data from the general population of Norway’s Nord Trøndelag region.
The HUNT Study began in the early 1980s with subsequent studies taking place approximately every 10 years (HUNT 1–3). HUNT 4 is expected to begin in 2015. With a participation rate at 60–88% (30,000 participated in all three current studies), HUNT is a special source for longitudinal studies and allows access to samples drawn prior to disease onset, making early disease biomarker identification and validation possible.
In 2005, the Norwegian government set up strong incentives for increased commercial activity within the country’s public universities and hospitals, and NTNU started a dedicated company for commercialization of the HUNT study. This company, HUNT Biosciences, holds an exclusive, commercial license to the population biobank material.
“Commercialization is challenging within a strong academic scientific environment. In addition to making the internal changes required by industry, such as achieving ISO 9001 certification, the main challenge HUNT Biosciences faced was to figure out how to make the massive amount of population and biobank data accessible.
“Imagine the matrix set up by 130,000 participants, more than 5,500 data variables, and 3.5 million aliquots of biomaterial topped with almost 50,000 genetic analyzes. It was important to visualize the most important cohorts within the data mass and to focus first on drilling that data down,” explains Håkon Haaheim, CBO.
HUNT Biosciences started operations in 2009 and signed its first industrial collaborations in 2010. Product development takes time, still Haaheim is optimistic that the first diagnostic utilizations may hit the market next year and that an existing commercial pharmaceutical product will be released for new indications in 2015.